Hubungan di Antara Emosi Pekerja dan Luapan emosi: Kajian empirikal di Sebuah Universiti Awam (THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKER'S EMOTION AND EMOTIONAL OUTBURST: EMPIRICAL STUDY AT A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY)

Authors

  • Azman Ismail Fakulti Sains Sosial & Pembangunan Manusia Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Andy Abdul Razak Fakulti Sains Sosial & Pembangunan Manusia Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Organizational behavior literature highlight that workers emotion  have two main characteristics: implicit emotion and expressed emotions. A study conducted recently found that the ability of workers to manage both elements of emotion wisely element will reduce emotional outbursts. The nature of this relationship is important, but the role of the work stress as a predictor of emotional outburst is less emphasised in workers emotion model. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure the effects of worker emotion on emotional outburst using 103 questionnaires forms collected from the lecturers who worked at a public university in East Malaysia. Pearson correlation analysis results showed two important findings: firstly, implicit emotion does not have a significant correlation with emotional outburst. Secondly, expressed emotions have a significant correlation with emotional outburst. The findings confirm that implicit emotion unable to be an effective predictor to reduce emotional outbusrt, expressed emotions have the potential to be an effective predictor to reduce emotional outbursts. Thus, discussion and implications of the study are also described in this paper.

 

 

 

ABSTRAK

Literatur gelagat organisasi mengketengahkan bahawa emosi pekerja mempunyai dua ciri utama: emosi tersirat dan emosi tersurat. Kajian yang dilaksanakan baru-baru ini mendapati bahawa kebolehan pekerja mengurus kedua-dua elemen emosi tersebut secara teratur dapat mengurangkan luapan emosi. Sifat perhubungan ini adalah penting, tetapi peranan tekanan kerja sebagai peramal luapan emosi adalah kurang diberi penekanan dalam model emosi pekerja. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengukur kesan emosi pekerja ke atas luapan emosi menggunakan 103 borang soal selidik yang dikumpulkan daripada pensyarah yang berkhidmat di sebuah universiti awam, Malaysia Timur, Malaysia. Keputusan analisis korelasi Pearson menunjukan dua dapatan penting: pertama, emosi tersirat tidak mempunyai korelasi yang signifikan dengan luapan emosi. Kedua, emosi tersurat mempunyai korelasi yang signifikan dengan luapan emosi. Dapatan kajian mengesahkan bahawa emosi tersirat tidak berupaya menjadi peramal yang berkesan untuk mengurangkan luapan emosi, manakala emosi tersurat berupaya menjadi peramal yang berkesan untuk mengurangkan luapan emosi. Justeru itu, perbincangan dan implikasi kajian turut dihuraikan dalam kertas kajian ini.

References

Abdul Razak, A. (2008). Gangguan kerjaya-keluarga sebagai pembolehubah mencelah dalam perhubungan antara emosi pekerja dan luapan emosi. Kertas Penyelidikan Sarjana Sains dalam Pembangunan Sumber Manusia. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

Anthony, W.P., Perrewe, P.L., and Kacmar, K.M. (1996). Strategic human resource management. Fort Worth, US:The Dryden Press

Ashforth, B., and Humphrey, R. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity. Academy of Management Review, 18 (1), 88-115.

Baron, R.M., and Kenny, D.A. (1986). This moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6), 1173-1182.

Barnett, C. R., Brennan, R. T., and Garies, K.C. (1999). A Closer Look at the Measurement of Burnout. Journal of Applied Bio-behavioral Research, 4 (2), 65-78.

Berenson, L.M., and Levine, D.M. (1992). Basic business statistics: Concepts and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs.

Brotheridge, C. M., and Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: comparing two perspectives of people work, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60 (2), 17-39.

Brotheridge, C. M., and Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76 (6), 365-379.

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work-family border theory: A new theory of work-family balance. Journal of Human Relations, 53 (6), 747-770.

Cropanzano, R., Weiss, H. M., and Elias, S. M. (2004). The impact of display rules and emotional labor on psychological well-being at work. Research in occupational stress and well-being, 3 (6) 45-89.

DeSteno, D., and Petty, R.E., Rucker, D.D., Wegener, D.T., and Braverman, J. (2004). Discrete emotions and persuasion: The role of emotion-induced expectancies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43-56.

Diefendorff, J. M., and Gosserand, R. H. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of emotional display rule perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 284-294.

Foster, D. P., Stine, B., and Waterman, R. (1998). Business analysis using regression: A casebook. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gardner, M. P. (1985). Mood States and Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review. Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (5), 281-300.

George, J. M. (1991). State or Trait: Effects of Positive Mood on Pro-social Behaviors at Work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76 (6), 299-307.

Geurts, S. and Demerouti, E. (2003). Work or non-work interface: A review of theories and findings, NY: Wiley.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., and McKee, A. (2001). Primal leadership; The hidden driver of great performance. Havard Business Review, Special Issue: Breakthrough Leadership, 43-51.

Grandey, A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5 (5), 95-110.

Grayson, K. (1998). Customer Responses to Emotional Labor in Discrete and Relational Service Exchange. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9 (2), 1998, 126-154.

Greenhaus, J. H., and Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of Conflict Between Work and Family Roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.

Gross, J. 1998. Antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (4), 224-237.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L, and Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th Ed). New Jersey: Prentice Hall International, Inc.

Hobfoll, S., and Freedy, J. (1993). Conservation of resources: A general stress theory applied to burnout. Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Jackson, S. and Schuler, R. (1983). Preventing Employee Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60 (2), 58-68.

Jackson, S., Schwab, R., and Schuler, R. S. (1986). Toward an understanding of the burnout phenomenon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (6), 630-40.

King, L.A. (1998). Ambivalence over emotional expression and reading emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 753-762

Kinicki, A., and Kreitner, R. (2006). Organizational behavior. Boston, US: McGraw-Hill /Irwin.

Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, R. T., and Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81 (5),123-133.

Leedy, P. D., and Ormrod, J. E. (2005). Practical research: Planning and design. Pearson Education Ltd.

MacDermid, S.M., Lee, M.D., Buck, M.L., and William, M.L. (2001a). Alternative work arrangements among professional and managers: Rethinking career development and success. Journal of Management Development, 20 (4), 305-317.

MacDermid, S.M., Lee, M.D., and Smith, S. (2001b). Forward into yesterday? Families and work in the 21st century. In Daly, K. Minding the Time in Family Experience: Emerging Issues and Perspectives, 59-81. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Press.

Maslach, C., (1982), Burnout-The Cost of Caring. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Maslach, C., and Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., and Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.

Meijman, T. F., and Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload, Handbook of work and organizational psychology (2nd Ed). UK: Psychology Press.

Montgomery, A. J., Panagopolou, E., and Benos, A. (2005a). Emotional labor at work and at home among Greek health-care professionals. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19 (2), 395-408.

Montgomery, A. J., Panagopolou, E., Wildt, M. D., and Meenks, E. (2005b). Work-family interference, emotional labor and burnout. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (1), 36-51.

Montgomery, A. J., Peeters, M.C.W., Schaufeli, W. B., and Ouden, M.D. (2003). Work-Home Interference Among Newspaper Managers: Its Relationship With Burnout and Engagement. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 16 (2), 195-211.

Moore, S. C. and Oaksford, M. (2002). Emotional Cognition: From Brain to Behavior. Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company.

Morris, J. A., and Fieldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21 (4), 989-1010.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.C., Gerhart, B., and Wright, P.M. (2004). Fundamentals of human resource management. Boston, US:McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Nunally, J. C., and Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw- Hill.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., and Berry, L. L. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. Journal of Marketing, 49 (4), 41-50.

Pines, A. M., and Aronson, E. (1988). Career Burnout, New York: Free Press.

Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psycho-evolutionary theory of emotion, New York: Academic Press.

Pugh, S. D. (2001). Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (3), 1018-1027.

Pugliesi, K. (1999). The consequences of emotional labor in a complex organization. Journal of Motivation and Emotion, 23, 125-54.

Redford, W., and Barefoot, J. (1988). Coronary-prone behavior: the emerging role of the hostility complex. New York: John Wiley.

Ryan, A. M., and Ployhart, R. E. (2003). Customer Service Behavior. New York: John Wiley.

Salkind, N. J. (2003). Exploring research. New Jersey: Pearson Education Ltd.

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., and Jackson, S. E. (1996). MBI-General survey, Mashlach Burnout Inventory (3rd Ed), CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Schaufeli, W. B. and Enzmann, D. (1998). The Burnout Companion to Study and Practice: A Critical Analysis, London: Taylor and Francis

Scherer, K. (2005). What are emotions and how can they be measured. Social Science Information Journal, 44 (4), 695-729.

Sekaran, U. (2000). Research methods for business: A skill building approach, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Solomon, R. (1993). The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

Temoshok, L., Heller, B. W., Sagebiel, R. W., Blois, M. S., Sweet, D. M., DiClemente, R. J., and Gold, M.L. (1985). The relationship of psychological factors to prognostic indicators in coetaneous malignant melanoma. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, (2) 139-53.

Tsai, J.L., and Chentsova-Dutton, Y. (2003). Variation among European Americans in emotional facial expression. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 650-657.

Tsai, W. C. (2001). Determinants and Consequences of Employee Displayed Positive Emotions. Journal of Management, 27 (4), 497-512.

Tsai, W. C., and Huang, Y. M. (2002). Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3), 1001-1008.

Van Maanen, J. (1983). Qualitative methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Weidner, G., Istvan, J., and McKnight, J. D. (1989), Clusters of behavioral coronary risk factors in employed women and men. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19 (5), 468-80.

Wharton, A. S., and Erickson, R. J. (1993). Managing emotions on the job and at home: Understanding the consequences of multiple emotional roles. Academy of Management Review, 18 (3), 457-486.

Wright, L. L. (1996). Qualitative international management research. UK: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Zammuner, V. L., and Galli, C. (2005a). The relationships with patients: â€emotional labor†and its correlates in hospital employees. In Hartel, C.E., Zerbe, W.J., and Ashkanasy, N.M. Emotions in Organizational Behavior, 251-285. Mahwah, N.J., US: Lawremce Associates.

Zammuner, V. L., and Galli, C. (2005b). Wellbeing: Causes and consequences of emotion regulation in work settings. International Review of Psychiatry, 17 (5), 355-364.

Zammuner, V. L., and Lotto, L. (2001). The regulation of emotions in the helping professions: Its nature, and its antecedents and consequences. A paper presented at Feelings and Emotions, The Amsterdam Symposium, Amsterdam.

Downloads

Published

2017-04-06

Issue

Section

Articles