AUSTRONESIAN AS RATIONALE FOR REGIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE PHILIPPINE CORDILLERAS

Authors

  • CRISTITO DIAZ VALDIVIA FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY BAGUIO CITY

Abstract

The subject of vernacularism as basis for local character in the Philippines’ Cordillera region and its Igorot culture groups remains an elusive topic in this nation which has gone thru three centuries of Spanish and half a century of American colonial rule. Language-wise however, and compared to countries with similar histories with a past western colonizer (like most of Latin America wherein the indigenous languages have almost been completely obliterated  by the past colonizer’s introduced language), it is clear that the Philippine languages including those of the Cordilleras, remain relatively intact and in active use. The disparity between the Cordillera peoples’ arrested state of architectural development vis-à-vis the active state  of their mother tongues is the inspiration leading to the locus of this study.  Based on the premise of the Austronesian heritage of selected Cordillera culture groups and their native languages, a lexicostatistical database was gathered to determine how divergent each culture group has wandered away from the mother tongue. The extracted language variables per respective culture group yields mathematically operable parameters for quantifying culture, despite perceived intangible attributes. Analyses of visible elements of the  indigenous dwellings of the culture groups, on the other hand, were the bases for extracting likewise operable parameters to represent the tangible aspect of culture. The mathematically-derived fusion of the native language and native architectural values thereupon produced what may be promoted as  an architectural anthropology template applicable for building programs in selected sites within the Cordillera region of the Philippines. A definitive application of this culturally-sensitive building program is exemplified thru a proposed fundamental social infrastructure in the City of Baguio,  which serves as the regional hub of the Cordillera  Administrative Region (CAR), with further impetus for its implementation on the grounds of the City recently being accorded the recognition of “Creative City†by the UNESCO.  The City itself was founded as a hill station during the colonial days of American rule. Therefore this architectural anthropology undertaking shall also serve as a symbolic gesture of the long overdue sovereignty of the indigenous Cordillera peoples and the whole Filipino nation over their past colonizers.

References

Alexander, Christopher et al. (1977). A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press

Aravena, Alejandro. (06 November 2014). [TEDx Talks]. Alejandro Aravena: My architectural philosophy? Bring the community into the process. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0I0Poe3qlg

Bellwood, Peter with James J. Fox and Darrell Tryon. (2006). The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Canberra: ANU E.Press. retrieved from http://press.anu.edu.au//austronesians/austronesians/pdf/austronesians-whole.pdf

Bellwood, Peter with Fox, James J. Austronesian Societies and Their Transformations. retrieved from http://press.anu.edu.au//austronesians/austronesians/pdf/ch12.pdf

Bellwood, Peter with Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia et al. (eds.). (2008). Past Human Migrations in East Asia. Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. New York, N.Y.: Routledge; retrieved from http://www.rogerblench.info/Archaeology/World/Methods%20chapter%20offprint.pdf

Blust, Robert. (2009). The Austronesian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University

Catanese and Snyder. (2006). Urban Planning. 2nd Edition. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.

Clevenger, Martha R. (2004). The Igorots in St. Louis Fair 1904. retrieved from http://www.oovrag.com/essays/essay2004a-1.shtml

Egenter, Nold. (1992), Architectural Anthropology. Lausanne: Structura Mundi

Fermin, Jose D. (2004). 1904 World’s Fair. The Filipino Experience. UP Press, Diliman, Quezon City

Greenhill, S.J., Blust. R, & Gray, R.D. (2008). The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database. Retrieved from http://language.psy.auckland.ac.nz/austronesian/

Groat, Linda and David Wang. (2001). Architectural Research Methods. New York: John Willey & Sons

Gudschinsky, Sarah C. (2015). The ABC'S of Lexicostatistics (Glottochronology). Published online: 04 Dec 2015. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00437956.1956.11659599

Ingels, Bjarke. (14 September 2012). [NOWNESS]. "Bjarke Ingels: Architect as Midwife" by Kelly Loudenberg. [Video File]. Retrieved from http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/youtube-video/

National University of Singapore. The Elements of Culture. retrieved from http://courses.nus.edu.sg/course/socsja/SC1101/CultureTAB.html

Peralta, Jesus T. (2001). Ethnic Transformation: The Building of a Nation. from Philippine Cultural and Artistic Landmarks of the Past Millennium. Manila: National Commission for the Culture and Arts

Rapoport, Amos. (2005). Culture, Architecture and Design .Locke Science Publishing Co., Inc.

Salingaros, Nikos A. (1997). A Theory of Architecture: Life and Complexity in Architecture from a Thermodynamic Analogy. Physics Essays, Vol. 10, pp. 165-173. Physics Essays Publications. retrieved from http://www.math.utsa.edu/sphere/salingar/LifeandComp.html

Sato, Koji. (1991). To Dwell in the Granary: The Origine of the Pile Dwellings in the Pacific. "Antropologi Indonesia" no.49, pp.31-47, Jurusan Antropologi FISIP. Universitas Indonesia. retrieved from http://www.sumai.org/asia/refer/sem9102.htm

Scott, William Henry. (2004). Barangay: 16th Century Philippine Culture & Society. Quezon City: ADMU Press

Scott, William Henry. Cordillera Architecture of Northern Luzon. retrieved from http://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/479

Scott, William Henry. (1969). On The Cordillera: A Look at the Peoples & Cultures of the Mountain Province. Manila: MCS Enterprises, Inc.

Scott, William Henry. (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. New Day Publishers, Quezon City

Solheim, Wilhelm G. (2006). Origins of the Filipinos and their Languages. Paper pre¬sented at the 9th Philip¬pine Lin¬guis¬tics Con-gress. Retrieved from http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf

Spuybroek, Lars. (2009). Research & Design: The Architecture of Variation. New York : Thames & Hudson

Stiny, George. (2006). Shape. Talking About Seeing and Doing. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. retrieved from http://shapetalkingaboutseeinganddoing.org/

Waterson, Roxana. (1993). The Living House. Singapore: Oxford University Press

Zamora, Mario D. (1967). Checklist of the Writings of H. Otley Bryer. cited in the American Anthropologist/ Volume 76, Issue 2, article first published online 28 October 2009; retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1974.76.2.02a00270/pdf

Downloads

Published

2020-12-15

Issue

Section

Articles