HUBUNGAN ANTARA DISKRIMINASI JANTINA DENGAN NIAT PEKERJA WANITA UNTUK KEKAL BEKERJA

Authors

  • Nurasmiza Md Isa Sekolah Pembangunan Sumber Manusia dan Psikologi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Rabeatul Husna Abdull Rahman Sekolah Pembangunan Sumber Manusia dan Psikologi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Salwa Abdul Patah Sekolah Pembangunan Sumber Manusia dan Psikologi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor

Abstract

Kajian ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara diskriminasi jantina terhadap pekerja wanita dan niat untuk kekal bekerja dalam organisasi. Kajian ini melibatkan 83 orang responden wanita yang terdiri daripada operator pengeluaran kilang di daerah Johor Bahru. Data dikumpul menggunakan soal selidik dan dianalisa menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan statistik inferensi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tahap diskriminasi dan niat untuk kekal bekerja dalam organisasi berada pada tahap sederhana. Selain itu, hasil kajian juga mendapati terdapat hubungan negatif dan signifikan antara diskriminasi jantina dan niat untuk kekal dalam organisasi. Ini bermaksud, semakin tinggi tahap persepsi diskriminasi, semakin rendah keinginan untuk kekal bekerja dalam organisasi. Antara dapatan kajian yang penting untuk dikemukakan ialah operator pengeluaran wanita didapati menerima gaji dan elaun yang lebih rendah berbanding operator pengeluaran lelaki. Ini merupakan salah satu aspek yang perlu diberi perhatian oleh pihak kilang bagi memastikan kesaksamaan layanan antara pekerja lelaki dan wanita, khususnya pada tahap prestasi yang setara. Layanan yang tidak adil antara jantina ini boleh menimbulkan rasa tidak puas hati seterusnya mempengaruhi keinginan pekerja meninggalkan organisasi.

References

Ahmad Shamsul Abd Aziz. (2005). Gangguan Seksual Menurut Undang-undang Malaysia dan Perspektif Islam. Ulum Syariah, 4(1), 17-40.

Ahmed, S., & Maitra, P. (2011). A Distributional Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap in Bangladesh. Oxford Development Studies, 38(1), 83-112.

Austin, R. (2000). "Bad for Business": Contextual Analysis, Race Discrimination, and Fast Food. The John Marshall Law Review, 34, 207.

Bhatt, J. K. (2005. Gender Discrimination in Employment: How Far Does Article 8 of the Federal Constitution Guarantee Gender Equality. Paper presented at the 13th Malaysian Law Conference.

Bobbitt-Zeher, D. (2011). Gender discrimination at work: connecting gender stereotypes, institutional policies and gender composition of the workplace. Gender & Society, 25(6), 764-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243211424741

Bosak, J., & Sczesny, S. (2011). Gender Bias in Leader Selection? Evidence from a Hiring Simulation Study. Sex Roles, 65:234–242, DOI 10.1007/s11199-011-0012-7

Busse, M. and Spielmann, C. (2003). Gender Discrimination and the International Division of

Cheung, H. K., King, E., Lindsey, A., Membere, A., Markell, H. M., & Kilcullen, M. (2016). Understanding and reducing workplace discrimination. In Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 101–152). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0742-730120160000034010

Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2003). The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 807−834.

Ensher, E.A., Grant-Vallone, E., & Donaldson, S.I. (2001). Effects of Perceived Discrimination on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Grievances. Human Resource Deve Quarterly, 12(1), 53-72.

Ghosh, P., Rachita Satyawadi, Jagdamba Prasad Joshi, & Mohd. Shadman. (2013). Who stays with you? Factors predicting employees' intention to stay. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21(3). DOI: 10.1108/IJOA-Sep-2011-0511

Gutek, B.A, Cohen, A.G, & Tsui, A.S. (1996). Reactions to Perceived Sex Discrimination. Human Relations, 49(6):791-813.

Hair, J. H., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007). Research Method for Business. London: Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Hammond, W.P, Gillen, M., & Yen, I.H. (2010). Workplace Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Multi-Ethnic Hospital Employees. Race Soc Probl., 2(1), 19–30.

Ghazali, H., Nasyuki, N.M. and Xiao Yi, O. (2012). Human resource Practices and Employees’ Intention to Stay in the Kuala Lumpur Hotel Industry. Retrieved from http://www.jthca.org/Download/pdf/V4%20IS1/chap%206.pdf

Hewitt, A. (2004). Employee engagement higher at double digit growth companies. Research

Brief. Hewitt associates LLC.

Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. (2017). Laporan Survei Tenaga Buruh Malaysia

Kementerian Sumber Manusia. (2015). Laporan Tahunan

Kementerian Sumber Manusia. (2006). Laporan Buletin Suku Tahunan Suku Kedua

Klonoff, Elizabeth A, Landrine, Hope, & Ullman, Jodie B. (1999). Racial discrimination and psychiatric symptoms among Blacks. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(4), 329-339.

Kongres Kesatuan Sekerja Malaysia. (2014). Diskriminasi punca wanita Malaysia jauhi pasaran kerja formal.

Lyness, K.S, & Judiesch, M.K. (2001). Are Female Managers Quitters? The Relationships of Gender, Promotions, and Family Leaves of Absence to Voluntary Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (6), 1167-1178

Mathis, R.L. and Jackson, J.H. (2000). Human Resource Management. South Western Collage Publishing, Ohio.

Markowitz, G.A. (2012). Faculty intention to stay and the perceived relationship with supervisor at a career focused university. Open Access Dissertations University of Miami. Paper 890

Mishra, J., Smith, H., & Battle, K. (2013). Discrimination in the workplace. Advances in

Management, 6(2), online before print. Diambil dari https://ideas.repec.org/a/mgn/journl/v6y2013i2a1.html

Mohd Nor Aizat Othman, (2012). Diskriminasi dalam Pasaran Buruh: Kajian Kes di Sektor Swasta. Prosiding Perkem VII, Jilid 2, 922 - 932 ISSN: 2231 – 962x.

Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Rahmah Ismail, & Noorasiah Sulaiman (2016). Pengasingan Pekerjaan dan Perbezaan Upah Jantina di Malaysia. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 50(1) 2016 53 - 66http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JEM-2016-5001-05

Nurul Nadia Abd Aziz, Noor Affeeda Ramli, Noor Khairunnisa Mat Yunus, Normilia Abd Wahid, & Maisarah Ishak (2016). Turnover intention and glass ceiling perceptions among female workers in IT industry in Malaysia. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(4), 250-254. Online ISSN: 2349-4182, Print ISSN: 2349-5979.

Oppenheim (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interview, And Attitude Measurement. New York: Printer Publisher.

Özer, G., & Günlük, M. (2010). The effects of discrimination perception and job satisfaction on Turkish public accountants’ turnover intention. African Journal of Business Management, 4(8), 1500-1509.

Pager, D., & Western, B. (2012).Identifying discrimination at work: The use of field experiments. Journal of Social Issues. 68

Parkins, I.S., Fishbein, H.D, & Ritchey, P.N. (2006). The Influence of Personality on Workplace Bullying and Discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 (10), 2554–2577. ISSN 1818-4952, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.19.05.1114

Plickert, G., & Sterling, J. (2017), Gender Still Matters: Effects of Workplace Discrimination on Employment Schedules of Young Professionals. Laws, 6, 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/laws6040028

Rahmah Ismail, (2009). Gender wage differentials and discrimination in Malaysian labour market. Paper presented at the EBES Conference, 1-2 June, Istanbul, Turkey.

Rahmah Ismail, & Idris Jajri (2012). Gender Wage Differentials and Discrimination in Malaysian Labour Market. World Applied Sciences Journal, 19 (5): 719-728.

Ramatu Abdulkareem Abubakar, Kabiru Maitama Kura, (2015). Does Gender Moderate the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee - Turnover Intention? A Proposed Model. 3 (1), ISSN: 2289-4519

Regmi, K., Naidoo, J., & Regmi, S. (2009). Understanding the effect of discrimination in the workplace. Equal Opportunities International, 28 (5), 398-414.

Ridgeway, C., & England, P. (2007). Sociological approaches to sex discrimination in employment. In F. J. Crosby, M. S. Stockdale, & S. Ann Ropp (Eds.), Sex segregation in the workplace: Trends, explanations, remedies (189–211). Oxford: Blackwell.

Shakti, B.S, Kothekar, M., & Kanitkar, J. (2005). A Study on Gender Issues in Sport in India. National Commission for Women. http://ncw.nic.in/sites/default/files/Gender%20Issue%20in%20Sports.pdf

Siti Fardaniah Abdul Aziz. 2009. Hubungan kualiti kehidupan bekerja dengan kecenderungan

pusing ganti pekerja: Kajian ke atas operator pengeluaran di kilang Celestica, Johor Bahru. Akademika 76 (Mei-Ogos), 105-119.

Siti Norhawa Mohd. Ali (14 Januari 2018). Diskriminasi wanita bertudung. Utusan Malaysia Diambil dari http://www.utusan.com.my

Sultana, A.M., & Nor Erlina Mohd Zulkefli, (2012). Discrimination against Women in the Developing Countries: A Comparative Study. DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH. 2012.V2.106

Tesfaye, Y. (2010). The Effect of Discrimination On Job Performance and Job Satisfaction.

Walker, I., & Smith, H. (Eds.). (2002). Relative deprivation: Specification, development and integration. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, E.M. (1995). Organizational Behaviour And Gender. London: McGraw-Hill.

Winnie Simun, & Azizan Morshidi. (2016). Diskriminasi Wanita Dalam Sektor Pekerjaan. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32227.55848

Zaiton Othman, & Nooraini Othman (2015). A Literatural Review on Work Discrimination among Women Employees. Asian Social Science, 11(4). ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025

Downloads

Published

2020-12-01

Issue

Section

Articles